Chemistry and biology of the ramoplanin family of peptide antibiotics.
The peptide antibiotic ramoplanin factor A2 is a promising clinical candidate for treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections that are resistant to antibiotics such as glycopeptides, macrolides, and penicillins. Since its discovery in 1984, no clinical or laboratory-generated resistance to this antibiotic has been reported. The mechanism of action of ramoplanin involves sequestration of peptidoglycan biosynthesis Lipid intermediates, thus physically occluding these substrates from proper utilization by the late-stage peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzymes MurG and the transglycosylases (TGases). Ramoplanin is structurally related to two cell wall active lipodepsipeptide antibiotics, janiemycin, and enduracidin, and is functionally related to members of the lantibiotic class of antimicrobial peptides (mersacidin, actagardine, nisin, and epidermin) and glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and teicoplanin). Peptidomimetic chemotherapeutics derived from the ramoplanin sequence may find future use as antibiotics against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and related pathogens. Here we review the chemistry and biology of the ramoplanins including its discovery, structure elucidation, biosynthesis, antimicrobial activity, mechanism of action, and total synthesis.
McCafferty, DG; Cudic, P; Frankel, BA; Barkallah, S; Kruger, RG; Li, W
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