Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits.
Changes in physiology and attentional performance associated with smoking abstinence were characterized in 67 female smokers during low-stress and high-stress conditions. Abstinence was associated with decreases in cognitive performance, heart rate, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activation but with no change in serum estradiol or progesterone. Effects of quitting showed no tendency to resolve across the 31 days of abstinence. EEG deactivation and heart rate slowing were greater during a math task (high stress) than during relaxation (low stress). Individuals high in trait depression or nicotine dependence or with at least one dopamine D(2) receptor A1 allele experienced greater EEG deactivation following abstinence, especially in the right hemisphere during the stressful task. Thus, findings support the situation x trait adaptive response model of abstinence effects and emphasize the value of multiple dependent measures when characterizing abstinence responses.
Gilbert, D; McClernon, J; Rabinovich, N; Sugai, C; Plath, L; Asgaard, G; Zuo, Y; Huggenvik, J; Botros, N
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