Repair of large insertion/deletion heterologies in human nuclear extracts is directed by a 5' single-strand break and is independent of the mismatch repair system
The repair of 12-, 27-, 62-, and 216-nucleotide unpaired insertion/deletion heterologies has been demonstrated in nuclear extracts of human cells. When present in covalently closed circular heteroduplexes or heteroduplexes containing a single-strand break 3' to the heterology, such structures are subject to a low level repair reaction that occurs with little strand bias. However, the presence of a single-strand break 5' to the insertion/deletion heterology greatly increases the efficiency of rectification and directs repair to the incised DNA strand. Because nick direction of repair is independent of the strand in which a particular heterology is placed, the observed strand bias is not due to asymmetry imposed on the heteroduplex by the extrahelical DNA segment. Strand-specific repair by this system requires ATP and the four dNTPs and is inhibited by aphidicolin. Repair is independent of the mismatch repair proteins MSh2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2 and occurs by a mechanism that is distinct from that of the conventional mismatch repair system. Large heterology repair in nuclear extracts of human cells is also independent of the XPF gene product, and extracts of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in the ERCC1 and ERCC4 gene products also support the reaction.
Littman, SJ; Fang, W-H; Modrich, P
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