Thermodynamic parameters governing interaction of EcoRI endonuclease with specific and nonspecific DNA sequences.
Equilibrium binding of EcoRI endonuclease to DNA has been analyzed by nitrocellulose filter and preferential DNA cleavage methods. Association constants for pBR322 and a 34-base pair molecule containing the EcoRI site of this plasmid in a central position were determined to be 1.9 X 10(11) M-1 and 1.0 X 10(11) M-1 at 37 degrees C, respectively, with the stoichiometry of binding being 0.8 +/- 0.1 mol of endonuclease dimer per mol of DNA. In contrast, the affinity of the enzyme for a pBR322 derivative from which the EcoRI site has been deleted is 3.2 X 10(9) M-1 as judged by competitive binding experiments. If it is assumed that each base pair can define the beginning of a nonspecific binding site, this value corresponds to an affinity for nonspecific sites of 7.4 X 10(5) M-1. Furthermore, the affinity of the endonuclease for the EcoRI-methylated sequence is at least three orders of magnitude less than that for the unmodified recognition site. The dependence on temperature and ionic strength of the equilibrium constant governing specific interactions has also been examined. The temperature dependence of the reaction indicates that entropy increase accounts for 70% of the free energy of specific binding at 37 degrees C. Affinity of the endonuclease for the EcoRI site is highly dependent on NaCl concentration. Analysis of this dependence according to the theory of Record and colleagues (Record, T. M., Jr., Lohman, T. M., and deHaseth, P. (1976) J. Mol. Biol. 107, 145-158) has implicated 8 ion pairs in the stability of specific complexes, a value identical with the number of phosphate contacts determined by ethylation interference analysis (Lu, A. L., Jack, W. E., and Modrich, P. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 13200-13206). Extrapolation to 1 M NaCl suggests that nonelectrostatic interactions account for 40% of the free energy change associated with specific complex formation.
Terry, BJ; Jack, WE; Rubin, RA; Modrich, P
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