Cellular and humoral immune responses to a canarypox vaccine containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env, Gag, and Pro in combination with rgp120.
Elicitation of both memory cytotoxic T cell responses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-neutralizing antibodies are desirable characteristics of an HIV vaccine regimen. We studied a combination vaccine regimen consisting of a canarypox (CP) vector containing Env, Gag, and Pro, in combination with a recombinant gp120 subunit protein. Twenty-six of 42 subjects who received CP Vac-Env-Pro demonstrated in vitro CD8(+) T cell responses, versus 3 of 17 who received the control CP rabies or gp120 vaccine only (P=.0003); 15 of these 26 demonstrated a CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response on > or =2 occasions postvaccination. The frequency of CD8(+) CTL response to HIV antigens was similar between vaccinia-naive and vaccinia-immune persons. Rgp120 immunization did not increase the CD8(+) CTL response to HIV type 1 envelope proteins, but rgp120 boosting did markedly enhance the titer and frequency of neutralizing antibodies to the MN strain of HIV. Overall, the combination of a CP Gag, Pro, Env vector, in combination with recombinant gp120, resulted in neutralizing antibodies in 91% of subjects and CD8(+) T cell responses in 62% of subjects. A nonreplicating pox virus shuttle vector vaccine appears to be capable of eliciting CD8(+) CTL responses in most healthy volunteers, whether they were vaccinia naive or vaccinia immune.
AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group 022 Protocol Team,
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