Combined systemic and mucosal immunization with microsphere-encapsulated inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus elicits serum, vaginal, and tracheal antibody responses in female rhesus macaques.
We determined the efficacy of immunization with microsphere-encapsulated whole inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by combined systemic and mucosal administration to protect female rhesus macaques against vaginal challenge with homologous rhesus PBMC-grown SIVmac251. Animals in one group were primed and boosted intramuscularly. Two groups were primed intramuscularly and boosted either intratracheally or orally. A final group was primed by vaccinia/rgp140 scarification and subdivided for either intratracheal or oral boosting. Strong ELISA titers of circulating SIV-specific IgG and modest IgA responses were elicited in the animals primed intramuscularly. Intratracheal boosting in the intramuscularly primed macaques resulted in high bronchial alveolar wash (BAW) IgG and less pronounced IgA. SIV-specific vaginal wash (VW) IgG was also present in the intramuscular/intramuscular and intramuscular/intratracheal groups. Vaccinia/rgp140 priming gave low ELISA titers to whole SIV, and failed to elicit mucosal antibody regardless of the booster route. No animal in any group developed serum neutralizing antibody to homologous SIVmac251. On vaginal challenge none of the immunized groups was infected at a lesser frequency than the unimmunized controls. These data suggest that the use of microspheres in a combined parenteral and mucosal regimen is an effective method of eliciting IgG and IgA antibody at mucosal surfaces.
Israel, ZR; Gettie, A; Ishizaka, ST; Mishkin, EM; Staas, J; Gilley, R; Montefiori, D; Marx, PA; Eldridge, JH
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