Oral SIV, SHIV, and HIV type 1 infection.
Several strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), including uncloned and molecularly cloned SIV strains, can cross intact mucosal surfaces after oral exposure in both adult and neonatal rhesus macaques, resulting in viremia and disease. Cell-free SIV strains as well as infected whole blood have resulted in systemic infection after oral inoculation. Neonatal macaques, exposed orally to the chimeric SHIV-vpu+, a derivative of SIVmac239 that encodes the env gene of the T cell-tropic HIV-IIIB, have also become persistently infected. These data indicate that oral exposure to various virus strains, including T cell-tropic variants, leads to infection. After nontraumatic inoculation, the oral route was more efficient than the rectal route in permitting SIV entry in adult macaques. Infection and AIDS resulting from oral exposure of adult macaques have implications for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during oral-genital contact.
Ruprecht, RM; Baba, TW; Liska, V; Ayehunie, S; Andersen, J; Montefiori, DC; Trichel, A; Murphey-Corb, M; Martin, L; Rizvi, TA; Bernacky, BJ; Buchl, SJ; Keeling, M
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