Inactivated whole-virus vaccine derived from a proviral DNA clone of simian immunodeficiency virus induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against heterologous challenge.
We tested the ability of macaques vaccinated with inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to resist challenge with either homologous or heterologous cell-free uncloned SIV administered by the intravenous route. The vaccine virus was derived from a proviral DNA clone and thus was considered genetically homogeneous. Sixteen macaques received either hepatitis B surface antigen (n = 6) or the inactivated whole-SIV vaccine (n = 10) at weeks 0, 4, and 49 of the study. All SIV vaccine recipients developed high levels of homologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies in response to vaccination. At the time of challenge (week 53), vaccinees were further stratified to receive either homologous (n = 10) or heterologous (n = 6) uncloned live SIV. The envelope glycoproteins of the homologous and heterologous challenge viruses were 94% and 81% identical to the vaccine virus, respectively. Regardless of challenge inoculum, all vaccinees in the control group (hepatitis B surface antigen) became infected, whereas all SIV vaccinees were protected against detectable infection. These data support the concept that an efficacious vaccine for HIV might be possible, and suggest that genetic variation of HIV might not be an insurmountable obstacle for vaccine development.
Johnson, PR; Montefiori, DC; Goldstein, S; Hamm, TE; Zhou, J; Kitov, S; Haigwood, NL; Misher, L; London, WT; Gerin, JL
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