Antibody-dependent enhancement of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in vitro by plasma from SIV-infected rhesus macaques.
Plasma from two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) experimentally infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV; isolate SIVmac251) enhanced SIVmac infection of a human CD4+ lymphoblastoid cell line, MT-2. Prechallenge plasma samples from these animals and serum from SIV-negative macaques did not enhance infection. Compared with controls, infection enhancement was characterized by the rapid appearance of syncytium formation (3 to 4 days sooner), reverse transcriptase release (10-fold increase), and cytopathic effect (60% cell killing). Enhancement of activity was dependent on the presence of diluted, fresh SIV-negative macaque serum as a source of complement. A requirement for complement was shown by the absence of enhancement in heat-inactivated serum and by dose-dependent inhibition of enhancement in the presence of polyclonal antibody to monkey complement component C3. Monoclonal antibody to CD4 (OKT4a) blocked enhancement completely, while monoclonal antibody to the human complement component C3d receptor CR2 (OKB7) reduced enhancement by greater than 50%, indicating a requirement for CD4 and CR2 in mediating this phenomenon. SIV infection-enhancing activity appeared in macaques soon after experimental inoculation (28 days). The titer increased over time and peaked just prior to the death of both macaques from opportunistic infections and lymphoma. In vitro SIV infection enhancement is nearly identical to the in vitro complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancing (C'-ADE) activity observed in human immunodeficiency virus-positive human sera (Robinson et al., Lancet i:790-794, 1988; Robinson et al., J. Acq. Immun. Def. Synd. 2:33-42, 1989). These observations validate the macaque-SIV model for studies of C'-ADE.
Montefiori, DC; Robinson, WE; Hirsch, VM; Modliszewski, A; Mitchell, WM; Johnson, PR
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