In vitro evaluation of mismatched double-stranded RNA (ampligen) for combination therapy in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Multiple drug effect analyses with mismatched double-stranded RNA (mismatched dsRNA or Ampligen) as a core drug were performed to identify other agents and mechanisms through which mismatched dsRNA may potentiate effective therapeutic intervention in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiviral activities were defined by a microtiter infection assay utilizing MT-2 cells as targets and HTLV-III-B produced in H9 cells as a virus source. The scope of agents tested included rIFN-alpha A, rIFN-beta Ser 17, and rIFN-gamma as cytokines; azidothymidine and phosphonoformate (Foscarnet) as inhibitors of reverse transcription; ribavirin as a putative inhibitor of proper HIV mRNA capping; amphotericin B as a lipophile; and castanospermine as a glycoprotein processing (glucosidase I) inhibitor. Separately, each drug demonstrated dose-dependent anti-HIV activity and, when used in combination with mismatched dsRNA, demonstrated synergism. Although mismatched dsRNA was synergistic with all three IFNs for anti-HIV activity in microtiter infection assays, it did not potentiate the transient inhibition of virus production observed for IFN in cultures of H9/HTLV-III-B cells. The results of these studies suggest that the pleiotropic activities of dsRNAs differ from those of IFN and may provide synergism in combination therapy with a wide range of antiviral drugs for the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Montefiori, DC; Robinson, WE; Mitchell, WM
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