Antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro by serum from HIV-1-infected and passively immunized chimpanzees.
Based on recent reports of antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro by serum from HIV-1-infected humans, sera from HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was evaluated for enhancing activity in an in vitro infection assay that uses MT-2 cells (a human lymphoblastoid cell line). Although fresh chimpanzee serum was found to have pronounced infection-enhancing properties in the absence of antibody to HIV-1, this effect was abolished by heat inactivation (57 degrees C, 1 hr) or treatment with cobra venom anticomplementary protein. Heat-inactivated, HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzee serum could enhance HIV-1 infection of MT-2 cells in vitro when combined with fresh, normal human serum. By serial serum samples from three HIV-1-infected chimpanzees, HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzees are shown to develop enhancing antibodies early in infection (2 mo postchallenge), whereas neutralizing antibodies develop later. Over the course of HIV-1 infection, this enhancing activity decreases while neutralizing activity increases, suggesting a possible role for enhancing and neutralizing activities in HIV-1 pathogenesis. The enhancing activity of an IgG fraction used to passively immunize chimpanzees against HIV-1 infection is shown to be present at dilutions as high as 1:65,000, offering an interesting possible reason for the failure of passive immunization to protect chimpanzees from HIV infection. These results suggest that serum from HIV-1-immunized chimpanzees might be tested to determine whether current HIV-1 candidate vaccines induce production of antibodies that mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection in this in vitro assay.
Robinson, WE; Montefiori, DC; Mitchell, WM; Prince, AM; Alter, HJ; Dreesman, GR; Eichberg, JW
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