Cruciate ligament force during the wall squat and the one-leg squat.
PURPOSE: To compare cruciate ligament forces during wall squat and one-leg squat exercises. METHODS: Eighteen subjects performed the wall squat with feet closer to the wall (wall squat short), the wall squat with feet farther from the wall (wall squat long), and the one-leg squat. EMG, force, and kinematic variables were input into a biomechanical model using optimization. A three-factor repeated-measure ANOVA (P < 0.05) with planned comparisons was used. RESULTS: Mean posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) forces were significantly greater in 1) wall squat long compared with wall squat short (0 degrees -80 degrees knee angles) and one-leg squat (0 degrees -90 degrees knee angles); 2) wall squat short compared with one-leg squat between 0 degrees -20 degrees and 90 degrees knee angles; 3) wall squat long compared with wall squat short (70 degrees -0 degrees knee angles) and one-leg squat (90 degrees -60 degrees and 20 degrees -0 degrees knee angles); and 4) wall squat short compared with one-leg squat between 90 degrees -70 degrees and 0 degrees knee angles. Peak PCL force magnitudes occurred between 80 degrees and 90 degrees knee angles and were 723 +/- 127 N for wall squat long, 786 +/- 197 N for wall squat short, and 414 +/- 133 N for one-leg squat. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) forces during one-leg squat occurred between 0 degrees and 40 degrees knee angles, with a peak magnitude of 59 +/- 52 N at 30 degrees knee angle. Quadriceps force ranged approximately between 30 and 720 N, whereas hamstring force ranged approximately between 15 and 190 N. CONCLUSIONS: Throughout the 0 degrees -90 degrees knee angles, the wall squat long generally exhibited significantly greater PCL forces compared with the wall squat short and one-leg squat. PCL forces were similar between the wall squat short and the one-leg squat. ACL forces were generated only in the one-leg squat. All exercises appear to load the ACL and the PCL within a safe range in healthy individuals.
Escamilla, RF; Zheng, N; Imamura, R; Macleod, TD; Edwards, WB; Hreljac, A; Fleisig, GS; Wilk, KE; Moorman, CT; Andrews, JR
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