Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the coronary arterial vasculature in humans.
The effects of the synthetic 28-amino-acid alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the proximal coronary arteries and coronary blood flow were evaluated in 17 patients. Proximal coronary dimension was quantitated by digital angiography, and coronary flow was quantitated with 3F Doppler flow catheters. ANP, when given as a 2.5-micrograms/kg bolus in the left ventricle, caused sustained significant proximal coronary dilations from 3.49 +/- 0.57 to 4.09 +/- 0.76 mm, lasting more than 30 minutes. The proximal coronary diameter did not increase further after intracoronary injection of 0.3 mg nitroglycerin (4.08 +/- 0.79 mm). Coronary flow (resistance coronary dilation) was not significantly increased at 5 minutes after ANP (87 +/- 55 to 102 +/- 54 vol flow units), indicating that the proximal coronary dilations were not flow dependent. The persistent proximal coronary dilations were associated with minor and transient decreases in aortic pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and with minor and transient increases in heart rate, cardiac output, and left ventricular contractility. Plasma ANP level increased significantly by more than sixfold from 39.8 +/- 8.8 to 245.8 +/- 168.5 pg/ml. The time course of proximal coronary dilations was related more closely to the time course of increase in plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate than that of plasma ANP. This study demonstrates that bolus injection of ANP (2.5 micrograms/kg), an endogenous vasodilator, caused marked sustained preferential proximal coronary dilations and brief minor changes in cardiac and systemic hemodynamics. Although additional studies are needed to assess its clinical efficacy as a coronary dilator in the treatment of coronary artery disease, these data suggest a potential of ANP in the therapy of ischemia.
Chu, A; Morris, KG; Kuehl, WD; Cusma, J; Navetta, F; Cobb, FR
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