Comprehensive two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography for the isolation of overexpressed proteins and proteome mapping.
A two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system is described here which uses size-exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) to separate the mixture of proteins resulting from the lysis of Escherichia coli cells and to isolate the proteins that they produce. The size-exclusion chromatography can be conducted under either denaturing or nondenaturing conditions. Peaks eluting from the first dimension are automatically subjected to reversed-phase chromatography to separate similarly sized proteins on the basis of their various hydrophobicities. The RPLC also serves to desalt the analytes so that they can be detected in the deep ultraviolet region at 215 nm regardless of the SEC mobile phase used. The two-dimensional (2D) chromatograms produced in this manner then strongly resemble the format of stained 2D gels, in that spots are displayed on a X-Y axis and intensity represents quantity of analyte. Following chromatographic separation, the analytes are deposited into six 96-well (576 total) polypropylene microtiter plates via a fraction collector. Interesting fractions are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) or electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) depending on sample concentration, which both yield accurate (2 to 0.02%) molecular weight information on intact proteins without any additional sample preparation, electroblotting, destaining, etc. The remaining 97% of a fraction can then be used for other analyses, such Edman sequencing, amino acid analysis, or proteolytic digestion and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. This 2D HPLC protein purification and identification system was used to isolate the src homology (SH2) domain of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase pp60c-src and beta-lactamase, both inserted into E. coli, as well as a number of native proteins comprising a small portion of the E. coli proteome.
Opiteck, GJ; Ramirez, SM; Jorgenson, JW; Moseley, MA
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