Prostate biopsy protocols: 3D visualization-based evaluation and clinical correlation.
OBJECTIVES: Systematic needle core biopsy is commonly used for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by urologists worldwide. As accurate and early diagnosis will result in more and better options for treatment, it is critical that the best possible protocols for biopsy be used clinically. In this study, we develop three-dimensional (3D) modeling and simulation technologies to evaluate most of the biopsy protocols in current clinical use, and correlate the results with those from clinical cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using deformable modeling techniques, 3D computerized prostate surface models were reconstructed from step-sectioned, whole-mounted radical prostatectomy specimens with localized prostate cancer. A 3D computer simulation system was developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. A user-friendly interface was developed in the system so that a physician can easily and interactively use it for prostate needle core biopsy. A total of 281 prostate models were reconstructed, and 18 biopsies were performed by a urologist on each model to determine the detection rates of seven different biopsy protocols. Clinical biopsies from 35 patient cases were also reviewed and correlated with the simulation results. RESULTS: The most commonly used sextant biopsy had only a 71.5% detection rate, while rates for the 10-pattern and 12-pattern protocols were much higher (96.4% and 97.2%, respectively). Even the lateral 4-pattern protocol performed better than the sextant protocol, with a detection rate of 89.3%. The lateral sextant biopsy protocol (using sites similar to, but more lateral than, those in the sextant protocol) achieved a rate of 92.5%. Although the rate of the 14-pattern biopsy was a little higher (97.5%), it used four more biopsies to achieve this increase, which, according to McNemar's test, is not statistically significant when compared to results with the 10-pattern protocol. The 5-region protocol, which uses 12 biopsies, had a detection rate of 89.7%. Transition zone and seminal vesicle biopsies did not result in a significantly increased detection rate when added to the patterns above. The clinical correlation also confirmed that the 10-pattern protocol was significantly superior to the traditional sextant biopsy pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The 10-pattern biopsy protocol was the most optimized among all the protocols evaluated. This protocol supplemented the sextant biopsy protocol with four more lateral biopsies in the mid and apical sites on both sides.
Zeng, J; Bauer, J; Zhang, W; Sesterhenn, I; Connelly, R; Lynch, J; Moul, J; Mun, SK
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