Analysis of anatomic factors and age in patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting.
Recent data suggest that patient age >80 years may be associated with increased risk of periprocedural complications from carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). In this study, we analyzed anatomic risk factors in patients undergoing CAS based on age >80 or <80 years. Our hypothesis was that patients >80 would have more challenging anatomy. Between February 2003 and August 2004, 82 patients underwent CAS. Images for 57 lesions were available for review. Eighteen patients were > or =80 years old and 39 were <80. Cerebral protection devices, including EPI Filterwire, Percusurge, Accunet, and Angioguard, were used in all but two cases; and self-expanding stents (Wallstent, NexStent, Acculink, Precise) were placed in all. Arterial anatomic characteristics were assigned a score based on complexity and associated procedural risk. Characteristics evaluated using angiographic images were aortic arch elongation classification, arch calcification, common carotid/innominate stenosis, common carotid tortuosity, internal carotid tortuosity, index lesion length, index lesion calcification, and index lesion stenosis. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. CAS was successfully completed in 98% of cases. The two patients in whom we could not perform CAS were 79 and 83 years old. The anatomic characteristics that were statistically significantly more complex/severe in patients > or =80 were arch calcification (p = 0.045), common carotid/innominate stenosis (p = 0.023), common carotid tortuosity (p = 0.049), and internal carotid tortuosity (p = 0.032). There was no statistically significant difference in arch elongation classification, lesion length, lesion calcification, or stenosis severity (p = nonsignificant). Overall, patients > or =80 years had an increased incidence of complex anatomic risk factors compared to younger patients (p < 0.001). Cerebrovascular accident without residual deficits occurred in two patients; both were >80 years old. Complex arterial anatomy is more often present in patients >80 years and may explain the increased complication rates associated with CAS. Pre- or intraoperative consideration of these characteristics may help provide better risk assessment in candidates for CAS.
Lin, SC; Trocciola, SM; Rhee, J; Dayal, R; Chaer, R; Morrissey, NJ; Mureebe, L; McKinsey, JF; Kent, KC; Faries, PL
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