In vitro inhibition of chick embryo lysyl hydroxylase by homogentisic acid. A proposed connective tissue defect in alkaptonuria.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Homogentisic acid inhibits the in vitro activity of chick embryo lysyl hydroxylase, a microsomal enzyme which catalyzes the transformation of certain lysyl residues in collagen to hydroxylysine. Chick embryo lysyl hydroxylase activity was measured as specific tritium release as tritium water from a [4,5-(3)H]lysine-labeled unhydroxylated collagen substrate prepared from chick calvaria. Kinetic studies revealed a linear, noncompetitive type of inhibition with respect to collagen substrate with a Ki of 120-180 muM. The inhibition by homogentisic acid was reversible in that enzyme activity could be restored after dialysis of preincubated mixtures of homogentisic acid with enzyme or substrate. The inhibition by homogentisic acid was competitive with respect to ascorbic acid, and the addition of reducing agents, such as ascorbic acid or 1,4-dithiothreitol, protected lysyl hydroxylase activity from homogentisic acid inhibition.In organ cultures of embryonic chick calvaria, biosynthesis of hydroxylysine-derived intermolecular collagen cross-links was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 0.5-5 mM homogentisic acid. Because homogentisic acid inhibits the formation of hydroxylysine in a cell-free assay and in organ cultures, this compound must pass into the cells of calvaria to inhibit intracellular hydroxylysine formation and subsequently to diminish the reducible intermolecular cross-links of the newly synthesized collagen. We propose that the inhibition of lysyl hydroxylase and the resulting hydroxylsine-deficient, structurally modified collagen may be clinically significant in the defective connective tissue found in alkaptonuric patients.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Murray, JC; Lindberg, KA; Pinnell, SR

Published Date

  • June 1977

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 59 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 1071 - 1079

PubMed ID

  • 405402

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC372319

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0021-9738

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1172/JCI108730


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States