Brief psychotherapy for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review;Systematic Review)

OBJECTIVE: Because evidence-based psychotherapies of 12 to 20 sessions can be perceived as too lengthy and time intensive for the treatment of depression in primary care, a number of studies have examined abbreviated psychotherapy protocols. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of brief psychotherapy (i.e., < or =8 sessions) for depression. METHODS: We used combined literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and an Internet-accessible database of clinical trials of psychotherapy to conduct two systematic searches: one for existing systematic reviews and another for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Included studies examined evidence-based psychotherapy(s) of eight or fewer sessions, focused on adults with depression, contained an acceptable control condition, were published in English, and used validated measures of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: We retained 2 systematic reviews and 15 RCTs evaluating cognitive behavioral therapy, problem-solving therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The systematic reviews found brief psychotherapies to be more efficacious than control, with effect sizes ranging from -0.33 to -0.25. Our meta-analysis found six to eight sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy to be more efficacious than control (ES -0.42, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.10, 12 = 56%). A sensitivity analysis controlled for statistical heterogeneity but showed smaller treatment effects (ES -0.24, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06, 12 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Depression can be efficaciously treated with six to eight sessions of psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy. Access to non-pharmacologic treatments for depression could be improved by training healthcare providers to deliver brief psychotherapies.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Nieuwsma, JA; Trivedi, RB; McDuffie, J; Kronish, I; Benjamin, D; Williams, JW

Published Date

  • 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 43 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 129 - 151

PubMed ID

  • 22849036

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3668561

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0091-2174

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.2190/PM.43.2.c


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States