5-Oxo-eicosanoids and hematopoietic cytokines cooperate in stimulating neutrophil function and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
The newly defined eicosatetraenoates (ETEs), 5-oxoETE and 5-oxo-15(OH)-ETE, share structural motifs, synthetic origins, and bioactions with leukotriene B4 (LTB4). All three eicosanoids stimulate Ca2+ transients and chemotaxis in human neutrophils (PMN). However, unlike LTB4, 5-oxoETE and 5-oxo-15(OH)-ETE alone cause little degranulation and no superoxide anion production. However, we show herein that, in PMN pretreated with granulocyte-macrophage or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF or G-CSF), the oxoETEs become potent activators of the last responses. The oxoETEs also induce translocation of secretory vesicles from the cytosol to the plasmalemma, an effect not requiring cytokine priming. To study the mechanism of PMN activation in response to the eicosanoids, we examined the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). PMN expressed three proteins (40, 42, and 44 kDa) that reacted with anti-MAPK antibodies. The oxoETEs, LTB4, GM-CSF, and G-CSF all stimulated PMN to activate the MAPKs and cPLA2, as defined by shifts in these proteins' electrophoretic mobility and tyrosine phosphorylation of the MAPKs. However, the speed and duration of the MAPK response varied markedly depending on the stimulus. 5-OxoETE caused a very rapid and transient activation of MAPK. In contrast, the response to the cytokines was rather slow and persistent. PMN pretreated with GM-CSF demonstrated a dramatic increase in the extent of MAPK tyrosine phosphorylation and electrophoretic mobility shift in response to 5-oxoETE. Similarly, 5-oxoETE induced PMN to release some preincorporated [14C]arachidonic acid, while GM-CSF greatly enhanced the extent of this release. Thus, the synergism exhibited by these agents is prominent at the level of MAPK stimulation and phospholipid deacylation. Pertussis toxin, but not Ca2+ depletion, inhibited MAPK responses to 5-oxoETE and LTB4, indicating that responses to both agents are coupled through G proteins but not dependent upon Ca2+ transients. 15-OxoETE and 15(OH)-ETE were inactive while 5-oxo-15(OH)-ETE and 5(OH)-ETE had 3- and 10-fold less potency than 5-oxoETE, indicating a rather strict structural specificity for the 5-keto group. LY 255283, a LTB4 antagonist, blocked the responses to LTB4 but not to 5-oxoETE. Therefore, the oxoETEs do not appear to operate through the LTB4 receptor. In summary, the oxoETEs are potent activators of PMN that share some but not all activities with LTB4. The response to the oxoETEs is greatly enhanced by pretreatment with cytokines, indicating that combinations of these mediators may be very important in the pathogenesis of inflammation.
O'Flaherty, JT; Kuroki, M; Nixon, AB; Wijkander, J; Yee, E; Lee, SL; Smitherman, PK; Wykle, RL; Daniel, LW
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