Pharmacokinetics and safety of ebastine in patients with impaired hepatic function compared with healthy volunteers: a phase I open-label study.
To assess the differences between patients with hepatic insufficiency and healthy subjects with regard to the pharmacokinetics, cardiac safety and overall safety of ebastine and its active metabolite carebastine.Open-label parallel-group study.24 patients with varying degrees of hepatic insufficiency, as categorised by the Child-Pugh classification, and 12 healthy volunteers.Healthy subjects and patients with Child-Pugh class A (n = 8) or B (n = 8) received ebastine 20 mg once daily for 7 days. Patients with Child-Pugh class C (n = 8) [single or repeated dose] received ebastine 10 mg. Plasma concentrations of ebastine and carebastine were determined for 23.5 hours following the initial dose on day 1 and for 96 hours following the dose on day 7 by using a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay with a minimum quantifiable limit of 0.05 microg/L for ebastine and 1.00 microg/L for carebastine. Hepatic function was assessed by blood clearance of indocyanine green 0.5 mg/kg administered intravenously on day 2. Cardiac and overall safety parameters were monitored.Overall, the pharmacokinetics of ebastine were not modified by hepatic impairment. No correlation between ebastine pharmacokinetics and hepatic function, as expressed by indocyanine green clearance, was observed. Comparison of the effective half-life of ebastine and carebastine between groups did not show relevant differences. Therefore, no apparent accumulation of ebastine occurred, and steady-state concentrations of ebastine and carebastine were predictable from single-dose pharmacokinetics both in healthy subjects and in hepatically impaired patients. Finally, no apparent difference was noted in the safety of ebastine between patients with hepatic insufficiency and healthy subjects as assessed by evaluation of adverse events, vital signs and laboratory parameters.Ebastine can be safely administered to patients with impaired hepatic function, as no clinically important differences can be anticipated from the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of ebastine/carebastine as compared with healthy subjects. Nevertheless, the dosage used in severely impaired patients (10mg daily) was half that used in patients with mild to moderate impairment, and any comedication did not include drugs affecting liver function; in clinical practice, both these factors should be taken into account.
Lasseter, KC; Dilzer, SC; Vargas, R; Waldman, S; Noveck, RJ
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