Pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole in patients with moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction.
BACKGROUND:Patients with impaired hepatic function usually require gastric acid-suppressant therapy but are at increased risk for drug interactions and may require dosage adjustments. The proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 isozymes. OBJECTIVE:This study sought to determine whether dosage adjustment of pantoprazole is required in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment by comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of pantoprazole in such patients with that in healthy slow metabolizers of pantoprazole, in whom no dosage adjustment is required. METHODS:Patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) and severe (Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment received oral pantoprazole 40 mg once daily on days 1 through 4 and then on alternate days (days 6 and 8). Serial blood samples were collected on days 4 and 8 for analyses of plasma pantoprazole concentrations. Pharmacokinetic data were compared between the 2 groups with hepatic impairment and against historical data from 17 healthy subjects who were genetically slow CYP2C19 metabolizers of pantoprazole. RESULTS:Twenty-two patients participated in the study, 13 in the Child-Pugh class B group and 9 in the Child-Pugh class C group. No clinically significant differences in pantoprazole pharmacokinetics were noted between the patients with hepatic impairment and the healthy slow metabolizers of pantoprazole on days 4 and 8. Pantoprazole was well tolerated. Four Child-Pugh class B patients and 3 Child-Pugh class C patients reported > or = 1 adverse event. Adverse events were generally mild or moderate, and were similar to those reported in healthy subjects. Two patients discontinued the study because of severe events related to their underlying disease. CONCLUSIONS:The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of pantoprazole were similar in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, patients with severe hepatic impairment, and healthy slow metabolizers of pantoprazole, in whom no dosage adjustment is required. Thus, no dosage adjustment of pantoprazole is required in patients with hepatic impairment, regardless of its severity. However, caution should be exercised when giving pantoprazole to patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Ferron, GM; Preston, RA; Noveck, RJ; Pockros, P; Mayer, P; Getsy, J; Turner, M; Abell, M; Paul, J
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