Differential effects of morning and evening dosing of nisoldipine ER on circadian blood pressure and heart rate.
The time of administration of once-daily antihypertensive agents may have a significant impact on blood pressure control during awake and sleep periods. Using 24-h ambulatory monitoring, we compared the effects of morning and evening dosing of the long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nisoldipine extended-release (ER), on circadian blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. After completing a 3-week placebo run-in period, 85 patients were randomized to morning versus evening nisoldipine ER treatment at a fixed 20-mg dose. Patients were treated for 4 weeks, followed by crossover to the alternate dosing regimen for 4 additional weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory monitoring was performed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks after randomization. Awake and sleep times were determined by electronic activity recorders (Actigraphy). Similar least-squares (+/-SE) mean changes from baseline in 24-h BP (systolic BP/diastolic BP: -11.9/-7.4 +/- 0.6/0.5 v -11.6/-6.5 +/- 0.6/0.5 mm Hg) and heart rate (1.0/1.7 +/- 0.4/0.4 beats/min) occurred with morning and evening administration, respectively. A significantly greater effect on awake diastolic BP (systolic BP/diastolic BP: -12.6/-8.1 +/- 0.7/0.4 v -11.3/-6.4 +/- 0.7/0.4 mm Hg; P = .16/.01) was observed with morning dosing compared with evening dosing. In addition, small increases in sleep and early morning heart rate were seen with evening compared with morning administration of nisoldipine (sleep, 3.1 +/- 0.4 v 0.4 +/- 0.4 beats/min; P < .001; early morning, 3.5 +/- 0.7 v 0.5 +/- 0.7 beats/min; P = .002). These differential effects on awake BP and sleep heart rate were also observed in patients who had normal (dippers) and elevated (nondippers) BP values during sleep. Appropriate evaluation of the efficacy and safety of long-acting antihypertensive agents is essential when evening administration is being considered. In the present study, the timing of nisoldipine ER administration had no effect on mean changes in BP and heart rate over a 24-h period. However, nisoldipine ER had some differential effects during sleep and awake periods with morning relative to evening dosing.
White, WB; Mansoor, GA; Pickering, TG; Vidt, DG; Hutchinson, HG; Johnson, RB; Noveck, R
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