Pivotal phase III trial of two dose levels of denileukin diftitox for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
PURPOSE: The objective of this phase III study was to determine the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of denileukin diftitox (DAB389IL-2, Ontak [Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc, San Diego, CA]) in patients with stage Ib to IVa cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) who have previously received other therapeutic interventions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven CTCL that expressed CD25 on > or = 20% of lymphocytes were assigned to one of two dose levels (9 or 18 microg/kg/d) of denileukin diftitox administered 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks for up to 8 cycles. Patients were monitored for toxicity and clinical efficacy, the latter assessed by changes in disease burden and quality of life measurements. Antibody levels of antidenileukin diftitox and anti-interleukin-2 and serum concentrations of denileukin diftitox were also measured. RESULTS: Overall, 30% of the 71 patients with CTCL treated with denileukin diftitox had an objective response (20% partial response; 10% complete response). The response rate and duration of response based on the time of the first dose of study drug for all responders (median of 6.9 months with a range of 2.7 to more than 46.1 months) were not statistically different between the two doses. Adverse events consisted of flu-like symptoms (fever/chills, nausea/vomiting, and myalgias/arthralgias), acute infusion-related events (hypotension, dyspnea, chest pain, and back pain), and a vascular leak syndrome (hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, edema). In addition, 61% of the patients experienced transient elevations of hepatic transaminase levels with 17% grade 3 or 4. Hypoalbuminemia occurred in 79%, including 15% with grade 3 or 4 changes. Tolerability at 9 and 18 microg/kg/d was similar, and there was no evidence of cumulative toxicity. CONCLUSION: Denileukin diftitox has been shown to be a useful and important agent in the treatment of patients whose CTCL is persistent or recurrent despite other therapeutic interventions.
Olsen, E; Duvic, M; Frankel, A; Kim, Y; Martin, A; Vonderheid, E; Jegasothy, B; Wood, G; Gordon, M; Heald, P; Oseroff, A; Pinter-Brown, L; Bowen, G; Kuzel, T; Fivenson, D; Foss, F; Glode, M; Molina, A; Knobler, E; Stewart, S; Cooper, K; Stevens, S; Craig, F; Reuben, J; Bacha, P; Nichols, J
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