Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer: an oncologic feasible option.
The conventional and accepted treatment for curative resection of colon cancer is laparotomy with hemicolectomy for right or left sided lesions. The technique of colon resection through an open laparotomy incision is well known. Over the past several years, laparoscopically assisted colectomy has been developed and studied, following the explosion of laparoscopic technology from the cholecystectomy experience and with acquisition of advanced general laparoscopic techniques. The right, left or sigmoid colon can be mobilized and regional lymphadenectomy performed using laparoscopic instruments and video-imaging equipment. The advantage of laparoscopic colectomy is the use of small abdominal port site and wound incisions which translate to reduced postoperative pain and analgesic requirement, earlier return of bowel function and normal physical activities, and shorter hospital stay without increasing health care costs. Laparoscopic colectomy compares favorably with open colectomy in terms of surgical morbidity and mortality. The laparoscopic approach has been shown to be technically and oncologically feasible with equivalent lymph node harvest from mesenteric lymphadenectomy and achieves adequate proximal and distal margins of colonic resection. Despite initial early anecdotal reports of port site cancer recurrence in laparoscopically assisted colectomy, port site recurrence is rare and its incidence is similar to incisional recurrences in conventional open colectomy. Recent prospective comparative studies have demonstrated equivalent patient survival and equivalent local or distant colon cancer recurrences for open versus laparoscopic curative resection of colon cancer.
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