Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.


In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin's local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economic status and TB incidence.


A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100,000 population. Moran's I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100,000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100,000. TB incidence and socio-economic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02).


Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Maciel, ELN; Pan, W; Dietze, R; Peres, RL; Vinhas, SA; Ribeiro, FK; Palaci, M; Rodrigues, RR; Zandonade, E; Golub, JE

Published Date

  • November 2010

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 14 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 1395 - 1402

PubMed ID

  • 20937178

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3713790

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1815-7920

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1027-3719


  • eng