Nicotine dependence and treatment outcome among African American cocaine-dependent patients.
Despite a close association between tobacco and cocaine use, few studies have systematically examined whether smoking predicts an adverse outcome for cocaine-dependent patients. We investigated whether severity of nicotine dependence was related to treatment outcome for cocaine-dependent individuals. Standardized assessments of nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND), cocaine use, and personality were obtained for 105 African American cocaine-dependent outpatients. Outcome measures included negative urine drug screens, days in treatment, dropout, and number of treatment sessions attended. The sample was stratified into cocaine-positive and cocaine-negative groups based on admission urine drug screens, and relationships between nicotine dependence and outcome measures were examined in each group. In the cocaine-negative group, higher FTND scores were negatively correlated with number of negative urine drug screens during treatment even after controlling for other predictors, whereas FTND scores were not correlated to outcome in the cocaine-positive group. It seems that severity of tobacco use predicts poor outcome for cocaine-dependent patients who are cocaine free at the time of admission into outpatient treatment.
Patkar, AA; Vergare, MJ; Thornton, CC; Weinstein, SP; Murray, HW; Leone, FT
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