Preclinical toxicity study of intrathecal administration of the pain relievers dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, and memantine in the sheep model
Objectives: To determine the toxicity window for the continuous intrathecal administration of dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, and memantine via an implanted delivery pump. Materials and Methods: Using 48 sheep with programmable continuous intrathecal infusion systems we determined the behavioral, motor, neurological, and histopathological changes produced by a 43-day continuous infusion study of dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, and memantine dissolved in 0.9% NaCl. Daily doses of each N-methyl-D, aspartate (NMDA) antagonist were 0.013, 0.051,0.203, 0.510, 0.811, and 2.533 mg/kg/day, flow rates ranged from 13.25 ml/day to 0.051 ml/day at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Control animals received saline in the range of 7.9985 ml/day to 1 ml/day. Conclusions: Infusion of saline in the control animals produced no behavioral or motor changes. However, infusion of dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, and memantine at the higher doses (> 0.051 mg/kg/day) produced dose-dependent negative behavioral, motor, and histopathologic changes as indicated by a series of nonparametric statistical analyses. The minimal toxic doses were dextrorphan dose 3, dextromethorphan dose 1 and memantine dose 1. This study suggests that continuous intrathecal infusion of dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, and memantine via an implantable pump system can cause significant toxicities at the higher doses studied.
Hassenbusch, SJ; Satterfield, WC; Gradert, TL; Binhazim, AW; Ahad, G; Mokhtarzadeh, M; Schapiro, SJ; Payne, R
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