Effects of delay in administration of potassium cardioplegia to the isolated rat heart.
Ischemic injury to the heart in the period between aortic cross-clamping and administration of cardioplegic solution was evaluated in the normothermic rat heart model. After isolation and control perfusion with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, the hearts were given lactated Ringer's cardioplegic solution (30 mEq of K+ per liter) for 2 minutes at three different intervals following aortic clamping: no delay, 2-minute delay, and 5-minute delay. Thereafter, the hearts were left unperfused and the time to initiation of ischemic contracture was recorded. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate levels were measured in all groups prior to and at the conclusion of cardioplegia administration. A 2-minute delay in the administration of cardioplegic solution resulted in significantly lower (p less than 0.001) ATP levels that were restored after 2 minutes of cardioplegia administration. Contracture times were not significantly altered. A 5-minute delay resulted in significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) contracture times and significantly lower (p less than 0.001) ATP levels that were not restored to preischemic levels by 2 minutes of cardioplegia administration. The fate of the myocardium may be insensitive to events that occur during the earliest moments of ischemia provided that rapid administration of oxygenated potassium cardioplegia follows the ischemic period and restores preischemic high-energy phosphate stores. However, there is a critical ischemic time during the initial interval before cardioplegia that is associated with an impaired ability of the myocardium to tolerate subsequent ischemia.
Freedman, BM; Pasque, MK; Pellom, GL; Deaton, DW; Frame, JR; Wechsler, AS
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