Abl kinases are required for invadopodia formation and chemokine-induced invasion.
The Abl tyrosine kinases, Abl and Arg, play a role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by modulating cell-cell adhesion and cell motility. Deregulation of both the actin cytoskeleton and Abl kinases have been implicated in cancers. Abl kinase activity is elevated in a number of metastatic cancers and these kinases are activated downstream of several oncogenic growth factor receptor signaling pathways. However, the role of Abl kinases in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during tumor progression and invasion remains elusive. Here we identify the Abl kinases as essential regulators of invadopodia assembly and function. We show that Abl kinases are activated downstream of the chemokine receptor, CXCR4, and are required for cancer cell invasion and matrix degradation induced by SDF1α, serum growth factors, and activated Src kinase. Moreover, Abl kinases are readily detected at invadopodia assembly sites and their inhibition prevents the assembly of actin and cortactin into organized invadopodia structures. We show that active Abl kinases form complexes with membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a critical invadopodia component required for matrix degradation. Further, loss of Abl kinase signaling induces internalization of MT1-MMP from the cell surface, promotes its accumulation in the perinuclear compartment and inhibits MT1-MMP tyrosine phosphorylation. Our findings reveal that Abl kinase signaling plays a critical role in invadopodia formation and function, and have far-reaching implications for the treatment of metastatic carcinomas.
Smith-Pearson, PS; Greuber, EK; Yogalingam, G; Pendergast, AM
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