Natural surfactant and hyperoxic lung injury in primates. II. Morphometric analyses.
Diffuse lung injury is accompanied by low compliance and hypoxemia with histological evidence of endothelial and alveolar epithelial cell disruption. The histological effects of treatment of an acute diffuse lung injury with a natural surfactant product were evaluated in a primate model because surfactant function and content have been shown to be abnormal in diffuse lung injury in both animals and humans. Ten baboons were ventilated with 100% O2 for 96 h, and 5 were given an aerosol of natural porcine surfactant. Physiological and biochemical measurements of the effects of hyperoxia and surfactant treatment are presented in a companion paper. After O2 exposure, lungs were fixed and processed for quantitative electron microscopy. The responses to O2 included epithelial and endothelial cell injuries, interstitial edema, and inflammation. The hyperoxic animals treated with surfactant were compared with the untreated animals; the treatments altered neutrophil distribution, fibroblast proliferation, and changes in the volumes of type I epithelial cells and endothelial cells. Surfactant-treated animals also had decreased lamellar body volume density in type II epithelial cells and preservation of endothelial cell integrity. These changes suggest complex effects of natural surfactant on the pulmonary response to hyperoxia, including protection against epithelial and endothelial cell destruction as well as significant interstitial inflammation and fibroblast proliferation. We conclude that natural surfactant treatment of hyperoxic lung injury in primates resulted in partial protection of epithelial and endothelial cells but also increased the accumulation of fibroblasts in the lung.
Fracica, PJ; Caminiti, SP; Piantadosi, CA; Duhaylongsod, FG; Crapo, JD; Young, SL
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