A murine monoclonal antibody directed against the carboxyl-terminal domain of GRP78 suppresses melanoma growth in mice.
The HSP70 family member GRP78 is a selective tumor marker upregulated on the surface of many tumor cell types, including melanoma, where it acts as a growth factor receptor-like protein. Receptor-recognized forms of the proteinase inhibitor α2-macroglobulin (α2M*) are the best-characterized ligands for GRP78, but in melanoma and other cancer patients, autoantibodies arise against the NH2-terminal domain of GRP78 that react with tumor cell-surface GRP78. This causes the activation of signaling cascades that are proproliferative and antiapoptotic. Antibodies directed against the COOH-terminal domain of GRP78, however, upregulate p53-mediated proapoptotic signaling, leading to cell death. Here, we describe the binding characteristics, cell signaling properties, and downstream cellular effects of three novel murine monoclonal antibodies. The NH2-terminal domain-reactive antibody, N88, mimics α2M* as a ligand and drives PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of Akt and the subsequent stimulation of cellular proliferation in vitro. The COOH-terminal domain-reactive antibody, C38, acts as an antagonist of both α2M* and N88, whereas another, C107, directly induces apoptosis in vitro. In a murine B16F1 melanoma flank tumor model, we demonstrate the acceleration of tumor growth by treatment with N88, whereas C107 significantly slowed tumor growth whether administered before (P<0.005) or after (P<0.05) tumor implantation.
de Ridder, GG; Ray, R; Pizzo, SV
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