Mechanistic classification of neural circuit dysfunctions: insights from neuroeconomics research in animals.
Many psychiatric conditions present complex behavioral symptoms, and the type and magnitude of underlying neural dysfunction may vary drastically. This review introduces a classification scheme for psychiatric symptoms, describing them in terms of the state of a dysfunctional neural circuit. We provide examples of two kinds of functional deficits: variance-shifted functionality, in which a damaged circuit continues to function albeit suboptimally, and state-shifted functionality, resulting in an absent or qualitatively different functional state. We discuss, from the perspective of neuroeconomics and related areas of behavioral investigation, three broad classes of commonly occurring symptoms in psychopathology based on selected studies of decision making in animals: temporal discounting, social preferences, and decision making under environmental volatility. We conclude that the proposed mechanistic categorization scheme offers promise for understanding neural circuit dysfunctions underlying psychopathology.
Chang, SWC; Barack, DL; Platt, ML
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