Anger expression and ambulatory blood pressure: a comparison of state and trait measures.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were (1) to compare trait and state measures of anger expression, (2) to examine associations between situational variables and anger expression, and (3) to examine relationships between trait and state anger expression and ambulatory blood pressure. METHODS: One hundred college students completed state and trait versions,of the Spielberger (1) anger expression scale. State measures were completed in response to specific anger-provoking situations as they occurred over a 7-day period. Ambulatory blood pressure was recorded on one of these days. RESULTS: Moderate correlations were observed between trait and state anger expression. Significant associations were found between a number of situational variables and state anger expression scales. Neither trait nor state anger expressions scales were related to blood pressure levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that trait and state measures of anger expression are not equivalent and that situational factors play an important role in anger expression. Situational variability may be an important factor in determining the health consequences of anger expression.
- Porter, LS; Stone, AA; Schwartz, JE
Volume / Issue
- 61 / 4
Start / End Page
- 454 - 463
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States