The impact of bivalirudin on percutaneous coronary intervention-related bleeding.
AIMS: We studied the clinical and economic impact of bivalirudin in clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing PCI via the common femoral artery for stable, unstable, or atypical angina, silent ischaemia, or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction indications during 2007-2008 were prospectively studied. In-hospital bleeding events were systematically assessed and classified as either major or minor. Use of bivalirudin, vascular closure devices, heparin and/or glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor was at the operator's discretion. Among 1,364 patients, 503 received bivalirudin and 861 received usual care consisting of either heparin monotherapy (n=687) or heparin+GP IIb/IIIa (n=174). Any post-PCI bleeding occurred in 356 (26.1%) patients, including 32 (2.3%) major and 324 (23.8%) minor events. Compared with usual care, bivalirudin was associated with reduced bleeding before adjustment (any: 17.3% vs. 31.2%, P<0.001; major: 1.2% vs. 3.0%, P=0.03; minor: 16.1% vs. 28.2%, P<0.01) and after propensity-matching (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.63, P<0.001). Use of vascular closure devices was associated with an increase in any bleeding (32.2% vs. 17.7%, P<0.001), primarily due to an increase in minor bleeding (30.8% vs. 14.1%, P<0.001) while there was a significant decrease in major bleeding (1.4% vs. 3.7%, P=0.007). Bivalirudin was associated with total hospitalisation costs that were lower than usual care (mean cost savings, $463/patient; 95% CI 1,594 less to 621 more). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective PCI cohort, bivalirudin was associated with reduced major and minor bleeding without a significant increase in hospital costs compared with other anticoagulation regimens. Closure device use was associated with decreased major but increased minor bleeding.
Lindsey, JB; Cohen, DJ; Stolker, JM; Meht, SK; Mahoney, E; Robertus, K; House, JA; Kennedy, K; Riggs, L; Rao, SV; Marso, SP
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