Anemia in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: current issues and future directions.
Anemia is common among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and portends a higher risk of short- and long-term mortality, major adverse cardiac events, and bleeding complications. Blood transfusion has long been the cornerstone of therapy for anemia; however, its benefit in patients with CAD is controversial and the appropriate threshold for transfusion has been widely debated. In this review, we summarize the studies evaluating the impact of anemia in patients with CAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and address several issues regarding the use of transfusion in anemic patients. In addition, we discuss alternative options for the management of anemia, such as the use of erythropoietin, aqueous oxygen, and hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers.
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