The need for inducing tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Successful hand and face transplantation in the last decade has firmly established the field of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). The experience in VCA has thus far been very similar to solid organ transplantation in terms of the morbidity associated with long-term immunosuppression. The unique immunological features of VCA such as split tolerance and resistance to chronic rejection are being investigated. Simultaneously there has been laboratory work studying tolerogenic protocols in animal VCA models. In order to optimize VCA outcomes, translational studies are needed to develop less toxic immunosuppression and possibly achieve donor-specific tolerance. This article reviews the immunology, animal models, mixed chimerism & tolerance induction in VCA and the direction of future research to enable better understanding and wider application of VCA.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Ravindra, KV; Xu, H; Bozulic, LD; Song, DD; Ildstad, ST

Published Date

  • 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 2012 /

Start / End Page

  • 438078 -

PubMed ID

  • 23251216

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3509522

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1740-2530

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1155/2012/438078


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Egypt