Preoperative chemoradiation coupled with aggressive resection as needed ensures near total control in advanced head and neck cancer.
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiation protocols are generally associated with high clinical response rates, but limited pathologic responses for large primary tumors. We have initiated a prospective phase II study of weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/M2, and carboplatin (AUC of 1) plus concurrent fractionated external beam radiation (45 Gy) followed by organ-preserving (or function restorative) surgery when applicable to maximize local-regional tumor control. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Operable patients staged by triple endoscopy received a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and vigorous dental and nutritional support during therapy. Weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/M2, carboplatin (AUC of 1), and radiation 45 Gy were given with rebiopsy of the primary site at 5 weeks. Patients with positive biopsy had definitive surgery in 4 to 5 weeks. Patients with negative biopsy-results received 3 additional weeks of radiation, to a total dose of 72 Gy plus carboplatin and paclitaxel. RESULTS: The 35 patients were 29 men and 6 women, aged 40 to 71 years, with stage III (12) or stage IV (23) cancer. The site of the cancer was oral cavity, 10; base of tongue, 3; oropharynx, 3; hypopharynx, 4; larynx, 12 (glottic, 6; supraglottic, 6), unknown primary, 2; other, nasal cavity, 1. Of 34 evaluable patients, 16 (47%) had a complete clinical response (CR) and 18 (53%) had a partial response (PR); total clinical response rate was 100%. A pathologic CR at the primary site occurred in 23 of 34 patients (68%; 2 had an unknown primary) who went on to completion radiation at 67 to 72 Gy. After induction chemoradiation 21 patients with N1-3 nodes had neck dissection; 6 (31%) had positive nodes. Twelve patients had residual cancer at the primary site at time of rebiopsy: mandible, 4; maxilla, 1; base of tongue, 2; larynx, 4; floor of mouth, 1; and nasal cavity, 1. All were resected with function-preserving reconstruction. At median follow-up of >12 months, progression-free and overall survivals were 71% and 83%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Preoperative treatment with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and radiation is associated with high CR at the primary site and a high level of organ preservation or functional restoration if ablation is done.
Wanebo, HJ; Chougule, P; Akerley, WL; Koness, RJ; McRae, R; Nigri, P; Leone, L; Ready, N; Safran, H; Webber, B; Cole, B
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