Time course and Ca(2+) dependence of sensitivity modulation in cyclic GMP-gated currents of intact cone photoreceptors.
We determined the Ca(2+) dependence and time course of the modulation of ligand sensitivity in cGMP-gated currents of intact cone photoreceptors. In electro-permeabilized single cones isolated from striped bass, we measured outer segment current amplitude as a function of cGMP or 8Br-cGMP concentrations in the presence of various Ca(2+) levels. The dependence of current amplitude on nucleotide concentration is well described by the Hill function with values of K(1/2), the ligand concentration that half-saturates current, that, in turn, depend on Ca(2+). K(1/2) increases as Ca(2+) rises, and this dependence is well described by a modified Michaelis-Menten function, indicating that modulation arises from the interaction of Ca(2+) with a single site without apparent cooperativity. (Ca)K(m), the Michaelis-Menten constant for Ca(2+) concentration is 857 +/- 68 nM for cGMP and 863 +/- 51 for 8Br-cGMP. In single cones under whole-cell voltage clamp, we simultaneously measured changes in membrane current and outer segment free Ca(2+) caused by sudden Ca(2+) sequestration attained by uncaging diazo-2. In the presence of constant 8Br-cGMP, 15 micro, Ca(2+) concentration decrease was complete within 50 ms and membrane conductance was enhanced 2.33 +/- 0.95-fold with a mean time to peak of 1.25 +/- 0.23 s. We developed a model that assumes channel modulation is a pseudo-first-order process kinetically limited by free Ca(2+). Based on the experimentally measured changes in Ca(2+) concentration, model simulations match experimental data well by assigning the pseudo-first-order time constant a mean value of 0.40 +/- 0.14 s. Thus, Ca(2+)-dependent ligand modulation occurs over the concentration range of the normal, dark-adapted cone. Its time course suggests that its functional effects are important in the recovery of the cone photoresponse to a flash of light and during the response to steps of light, when cones adapt.
Rebrik, TI; Kotelnikova, EA; Korenbrot, JI
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)