Genistein and bisphenol A exposure cause estrogen receptor 1 to bind thousands of sites in a cell type-specific manner.
Endogenous estrogens that are synthesized in the body impact gene regulation by activating estrogen receptors in diverse cell types. Exogenous compounds that have estrogenic properties can also be found circulating in the blood in both children and adults. The genome-wide impact of these environmental estrogens on gene regulation is unclear. To obtain an integrated view of gene regulation in response to environmental and endogenous estrogens on a genome-wide scale, we performed ChIP-seq to identify estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; previously estrogen receptor α) binding sites, and RNA-seq in endometrial cancer cells exposed to bisphenol A (BPA; found in plastics), genistein (GEN; found in soybean), or 17β-estradiol (E2; an endogenous estrogen). GEN and BPA treatment induces thousands of ESR1 binding sites and >50 gene expression changes, representing a subset of E2-induced gene regulation changes. Genes affected by E2 were highly enriched for ribosome-associated proteins; however, GEN and BPA failed to regulate most ribosome-associated proteins and instead enriched for transporters of carboxylic acids. Treatment-dependent changes in gene expression were associated with treatment-dependent ESR1 binding sites, with the exception that many genes up-regulated by E2 harbored a BPA-induced ESR1 binding site but failed to show any expression change after BPA treatment. GEN and BPA exhibited a similar relationship to E2 in the breast cancer line T-47D, where cell type specificity played a much larger role than treatment specificity. Overall, both environmental estrogens clearly regulate gene expression through ESR1 on a genome-wide scale, although with lower potency resulting in less ESR1 binding sites and less gene expression changes compared to the endogenous estrogen, E2.
Gertz, J; Reddy, TE; Varley, KE; Garabedian, MJ; Myers, RM
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