Programmable assembly at the molecular scale: Self-assembly of DNA lattices (invited paper)
DNA self-assembly is a methodology for the construction of molecular scale structures. In this method, artificially synthesized single stranded DNA self-assemble into DNA crossover molecules (tiles). These DNA tiles have sticky ends that preferentially match the sticky ends of certain other DNA tiles, facilitating the further assembly into tiling lattices. DNA self-assembly can, using only a small number of component tiles, provide arbitrarily complex assemblies. The self-assembly of large 2D lattices consisting of up to thousands of tiles have been recently demonstrated, and 3D DNA lattices may soon be feasible to construct. We describe various novel DNA tiles with properties that facilitate self-assembly and their visualization by imaging devices such as atomic three microscope. We discuss key theoretical and practical challenges of DNA self-assembly, as well as numerous potential applications. We briefly discuss the ongoing development of attachment chemistry from DNA lattices to various types of mole cules, and consider application of DNA lattices (assuming the development of such appropriate attachment chemistry from DNA lattices to these objects) as a substrate for: (a) molecular robotics; for manipulation of molecules using molecular motor devices, (b) layout of molecular electronic circuit components, (c) surface chemistry, for example ultra compact annealing arrays, We also discuss bounds on the speed and error rates of the various types of self-assembly reactions, as well as methods that may minimize errors in self-assembly.
Reif, JH; LaBean, TH; Seeman, NC
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