Use of knowledge-based restraints in phenix.refine to improve macromolecular refinement at low resolution.
Traditional methods for macromolecular refinement often have limited success at low resolution (3.0-3.5 Å or worse), producing models that score poorly on crystallographic and geometric validation criteria. To improve low-resolution refinement, knowledge from macromolecular chemistry and homology was used to add three new coordinate-restraint functions to the refinement program phenix.refine. Firstly, a `reference-model' method uses an identical or homologous higher resolution model to add restraints on torsion angles to the geometric target function. Secondly, automatic restraints for common secondary-structure elements in proteins and nucleic acids were implemented that can help to preserve the secondary-structure geometry, which is often distorted at low resolution. Lastly, we have implemented Ramachandran-based restraints on the backbone torsion angles. In this method, a ϕ,ψ term is added to the geometric target function to minimize a modified Ramachandran landscape that smoothly combines favorable peaks identified from nonredundant high-quality data with unfavorable peaks calculated using a clash-based pseudo-energy function. All three methods show improved MolProbity validation statistics, typically complemented by a lowered R(free) and a decreased gap between R(work) and R(free).
Headd, JJ; Echols, N; Afonine, PV; Grosse-Kunstleve, RW; Chen, VB; Moriarty, NW; Richardson, DC; Richardson, JS; Adams, PD
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