Inhibition of Settlement by Larvae of Balanus amphitrite and Ciona intestinalis by a Surface-Colonizing Marine Bacterium.
In an attempt to isolate bacteria with inhibitory effects against settlement by larvae of sessile invertebrates, 40 marine bacterial isolates were screened for effects against laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) and ascidian larvae (Ciona intestinalis). Five isolates displayed non-pH-dependent inhibitory effects against the larvae. The initial characterization of a toxic component released from an isolate, designated D2 (CCUG 26757), and its effect on laboratory-reared barnacle and ascidian larvae were studied. D2 is a facultative, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of C. intestinalis from waters off the Swedish west coast at a depth of 10 m. Results suggest that the toxic component is released by D2 during the stationary phase. Aged biofilms were more toxic to the larvae than unaged films. The biologically active compound was in the supernatant of D2 and was heat stable and <500 Da in molecular mass. No evidence of protein or peptide moieties was found. On the basis of two phase and chromatography separations, the component is polar and neutral and contains or binds to carbohydrate moieties. Metaperiodate treatment increased toxicity; undiluted supernatant from a 24-h growth culture of D2 killed barnacle and ascidian larvae within a few hours of exposure, whereas after metaperiodate treatment, the larvae were killed in approximately 30 min.
Holmström, C; Rittschof, D; Kjelleberg, S
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