Cloretazine (VNP40101M), a novel sulfonylhydrazine alkylating agent, in patients age 60 years or older with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.
PURPOSE: Cloretazine (VNP40101M) is a sulfonylhydrazine alkylating agent with significant antileukemia activity. A multicenter phase II study of cloretazine was conducted in patients 60 years of age or older with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cloretazine 600 mg/m2 was administered as a single intravenous infusion. Patients were stratified by age, performance score, cytogenetic risk category, type of AML, and comorbidity. RESULTS: One hundred four patients, median age 72 years (range, 60 to 84 years), were treated on study. Performance status was 2 in 31 patients (30%) and no patient had a favorable karyotype. Forty-seven patients (45%) had cardiac disease, 25 patients (24%) had hepatic disease, and 19 patients (18%) had pulmonary disease, defined as per the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index, at study entry. The overall response rate was 32%, with 29 patients (28%) achieving complete response (CR) and four patients (4%) achieving CR with incomplete platelet recovery. Response rates in 44 de novo AML patients, 45 secondary AML patients, and 15 high-risk MDS patients were 50%, 11%, and 40%, respectively. Response by cytogenetic risk category was 39% in 56 patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk and 24% in 46 patients with unfavorable cytogenetic risk. Nineteen (18%) patients died within 30 days of receiving cloretazine therapy. Median overall survival was 94 days, with a 1-year survival of 14%; the median duration of survival was 147 days, with a 1-year survival of 28% for those who achieved CR. CONCLUSION: Cloretazine has significant activity and modest extramedullary toxicity in elderly patients with AML or high-risk MDS. Response rates remain consistent despite increasing age and comorbidity.
Giles, F; Rizzieri, D; Karp, J; Vey, N; Ravandi, F; Faderl, S; Khan, KD; Verhoef, G; Wijermans, P; Advani, A; Roboz, G; Kantarjian, H; Bilgrami, SFA; Ferrant, A; Daenen, SMGJ; Karsten, V; Cahill, A; Albitar, M; Mufti, G; O'Brien, S
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