Abnormal haemoglobin levels in acute coronary syndromes.
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is an adverse prognostic marker in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), but the epidemiology of abnormal haemoglobin levels in such patients is uncertain. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence, nature and predictors of abnormal haemoglobin levels in ACS patients at admission. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: All emergency admissions from January to April 2005 were assessed within 24-48 h of hospital admission. ACS patients (unstable angina, non-ST-elevation or ST-elevation myocardial infarction) were enrolled (n = 320, 190 men). Clinical information was recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 71% had unstable angina; 18% non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI), and 11% ST-elevation MI. Mean +/- SD haemoglobin was 14.3 +/- 1.7 g/dl in men and 13.2 +/- 1.5 g/dl in women. Abnormal haemoglobin was more common in men (65, 34%) than in women (34, 22%) (p = 0.013). Anaemia (haemoglobin <13 g/dl in men, or <12.0 g/dl in women) was recorded in 35 (18%) men and 24 (18%) women. All had admission haemoglobin >8 g/dl, and anaemia was usually normocytic. Multivariate predictors of anaemia (OR, 95%CI) were age (1.07, 1.04-1.1) and serum albumin (0.90, 0.81-1.00). Elevated haemoglobin (>16 g/dl) was recorded in 30 (16%) men and 4 (3%) women (p < 0.01), and was more common in ST-elevation MI patients (26%) than in unstable angina or non-ST elevation MI patients (9%) (p = 0.005). In patients who underwent invasive management with a post-procedure haemoglobin the following day (n = 85), 15 (18%) new cases of anaemia were detected. Admission duration correlated with haemoglobin (p < 0.01), creatinine (p < 0.01), troponin I (p < 0.01) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.01). Anaemia was more common in those who died in hospital (3, 60%) than in those who survived (56, 18%) (adjusted p = 0.0135). DISCUSSION: Abnormal haemoglobin levels were common in our ACS admissions. Anaemia was generally mild. Increasing age and interventional management were associated with anaemia, which in turn was associated with adverse in-hospital outcomes. Interventions to prevent and detect anaemia in this setting merit prospective testing.
Bindra, K; Berry, C; Rogers, J; Stewart, N; Watts, M; Christie, J; Cobbe, SM; Eteiba, H
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