Intraosseous infusions: a review for the anesthesiologist with a focus on pediatric use.
Intraosseous (IO) access is used most frequently for emergency care of critically ill infants and children when IV access cannot be rapidly achieved. Despite its efficacy in such situations, applications outside of the emergency room or resuscitation scenario have been limited. Furthermore, although the technique is emphasized in the teaching of those caring for critically ill infants and children in the emergency room or critical care setting, there is limited emphasis on its potential use in the perioperative setting. When peripheral venous access cannot be achieved in the operating room, alternative means of securing vascular access such as central line placement or surgical cutdown are generally successful; however, these techniques may be time consuming. Anyone providing anesthesia care for infants and children may want to become facile with the use of IO infusions for selected indications. We present the history of IO infusions, review the anatomy of the bone marrow space, discuss the potential role of IO infusions in the perioperative period, and analyze its adverse effect profile.
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