Patient and family impact of pediatric genitourinary diagnostic imaging tests.
PURPOSE: The impact of diagnostic genitourinary imaging on patients and families is poorly understood. We measured patient and family reaction to commonly performed genitourinary imaging studies using a standardized measurement tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed families undergoing genitourinary imaging (renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, radionuclide cystogram, static renal scintigraphy and diuretic renal scintigraphy) using a Likert scaled 11-item survey to assess impact across 4 domains (pain, anxiety, time, satisfaction). Survey scores were analyzed using ANOVA and linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 263 families were surveyed (61 renal ultrasound, 52 voiding cystourethrogram, 55 radionuclide cystogram, 47 mercaptoacetyltriglycine dynamic renal scintigraphy, 48 dimercaptosuccinic acid static renal scintigraphy). Mean patient age was 2.1 years old. Of the patients 45% were male and 77% were white. Patient age, gender and prior genitourinary imaging experience varied by study type. Study type was significantly associated with total and weighted scores on the genitourinary imaging survey (both p <0.0001). Renal ultrasound was scored as better and mercaptoacetyltriglycine dynamic renal scintigraphy was worse than voiding cystourethrogram, radionuclide cystogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid static renal scintigraphy, which did not differ from each other. Other factors associated with worse total scores included patient age 1 to 3 years (p <0.001) and nonwhite race (p = 0.04). Gender, prior testing history, wait time and parent education were not associated with total scores. In the multivariate model renal ultrasound remained the best and mercaptoacetyltriglycine dynamic renal scintigraphy the worst (p <0.0001). In a direct comparison dimercaptosuccinic acid static renal scintigraphy and voiding cystourethrogram total scores did not differ (p = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences among genitourinary imaging studies regarding the patient/family experience, but there was no overall difference between dimercaptosuccinic acid static renal scintigraphy and voiding cystourethrogram. These findings may be useful to aid decision making when considering genitourinary imaging for children.
Nelson, CP; Chow, JS; Rosoklija, I; Ziniel, S; Routh, JC; Cilento, BG
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