Ketorolac is underutilized after ureteral reimplantation despite reduced hospital cost and reduced length of stay.
OBJECTIVES: To examine patterns of ketorolac use and its association with hospital outcomes. Although ureteral reimplantation (UR) reliably corrects vesicoureteral reflux, postoperative pain and bladder spasm often occur. Multiple studies show that ketorolac markedly reduces postoperative pain after UR, but there is no information on whether ketorolac is routinely used. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System is a national database collected by over 40 US children's hospitals. We identified children with primary vesicoureteral reflux who underwent UR between 2003 and 2008. Billing data were reviewed to identify patients who received ketorolac during hospitalization. Multivariate models were used to examine ketorolac use and postoperative outcomes including complication rates, length of stay, and hospital costs. RESULTS: We identified 12,239 children undergoing UR, 6362 (52%) of whom received ketorolac postoperatively. Factors associated with ketorolac use include older age, female gender, and decreased disease severity (all P <.0001). Ketorolac use was associated with reduced length of stay (2 vs 3 days, P <.0001) and decreased hospital costs ($14,223 vs $16,382, P <.0001). Complication rates were slightly higher in patients not receiving ketorolac (4% vs 3%). After adjusting for confounding factors, ketorolac use remained highly associated with decreased length of stay (P = .01) and decreased costs (P = .002), with no significant differences in complication rates (P = .4). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary nationwide sample, only half of children undergoing UR received ketorolac. Ketorolac use is independently associated with reduced procedure costs and reduced length of stay after UR, without increased complications. This suggests underutilization of ketorolac after UR.
Routh, JC; Graham, DA; Nelson, CP
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