Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: epidemiological trends, screening, diagnosis, and surgical management of localized disease.
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite years of study and effort, certain key questions remain unanswered, including how prostate cancer is best detected and diagnosed, how it is best treated, and how best to minimize the complications of treatment. The aim of this article is to briefly address these topics to shed light on the current best practices in prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of localized disease. We examine current trends in prostate cancer epidemiology and screening, including genetic and dietary risk factors and the newer prostate-specific antigen-derived screening modalities. Methods of diagnosis, including an overview of prostate biopsy technique and indications, and a brief review of relevant pathologic findings are provided. An in-depth analysis of traditional prostate cancer surgical management highlights the relevant advantages and disadvantages of radical retropubic and perineal prostatectomy. Complications of surgery, prognostic factors, and the many risk prediction models currently available are discussed. In all, this article aims to give the reader a broad overview of the basic elements of prostate cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment in the modem era.
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