Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: a family-based case-control study.
BACKGROUND: Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming) are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. METHODS: Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. RESULTS: Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.29). Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p
Hancock, DB; Martin, ER; Mayhew, GM; Stajich, JM; Jewett, R; Stacy, MA; Scott, BL; Vance, JM; Scott, WK
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