Vaccination with vif-deleted feline immunodeficiency virus provirus, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha plasmids preserves global CD4 T lymphocyte function after challenge with FIV.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) DNA vaccine approaches that included a vif-deleted FIV provirus (FIV-pPPRDeltavif) and feline cytokine expression plasmids were tested for immunogenicity and efficacy by immunization of specific pathogen free cats. Vaccine protocols included FIV-pPPRDeltavif plasmid alone; a combination of FIV-pPPRDeltavif DNA and feline granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha expression plasmids; or a combination of FIV-pPPRDeltavif and feline interleukin (IL)-15 plasmids. Cats immunized with FIV-pPPRDeltavif, GM-CSF and TNF-alpha plasmids demonstrated an increased frequency of FIV-specific T cell proliferation responses compared to other vaccine groups. Immunization with FIV-pPPRDeltavif and IL-15 plasmids was distinguished from other vaccine protocols by the induction of antiviral antibodies. Suppression of virus loads was not observed for any of the FIV-pPPRDeltavif DNA vaccine protocols after challenge with the FIV-PPR isolate. However, prior immunization with FIV-pPPRDeltavif, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha plasmids resulted in preservation of CD4 T cell functions, including mitogen-induced cytokine expression and antigen-specific proliferation upon infection with FIV. These findings justify further examination of cytokine combinations as adjuvants for lentiviral DNA vaccines.
Maksaereekul, S; Dubie, RA; Shen, X; Kieu, H; Dean, GA; Sparger, EE
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